Tribune’s Online writing competition was organized nation wide and results are out now. Hope you enjoy reading some of the best writings from the competition. These are winners listed below(swipe to next)…

1. Ritanshi Jain

CHANDERPRABHU JAIN COLLEGE (GGSIPU)

CUSTOMIZED EDUCATION TOLL AND SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION:

Personalized learning refers to instruction in which the pace of learning and the instructional approach are optimized for the needs of each learner. Learning objectives, instructional approaches, and instructional content (and its sequencing) may all vary based on learner needs. In addition, learning activities are meaningful and relevant to learners, driven by their interests, and often self- initiated. In the rhetoric around 21st century skills, personalized learning is often equated with ‘customization’ (as found in the business world), with digital personalization used to the frame learning experience as highly efficient.

 

Personalized learning, learning that connected to each individual’s development, background, interests and experiences, provides an approach that broadly and equitably supports educator’s efforts to empower learners as individuals. It offers a path to effectively support the growing diversity of the population of students by understanding how individual learners learn best and actively engage, motivate and inspire them with the right resources at the right time, in the right medium and at the right place.

It is a student- centered approach designed to help all students, including students from low income families and students of color who have been traditionally undeserved, develop the knowledge, skills and abilities that will prepare them for college, a career, and life. It occurs when all learning is focused on, demonstrated by, and led with the learner, and connected meaningfully with mentors, peers and the community.

 

Customized education design (CED) strengthens the growing trend in customized education. Independent high school students can now benefit from deeper support with an accredited transcript from CED. It is regionally accredited by the Middle States Association of colleges and schools. It can:

  • Ease credit transfer into public and private schools
  • Streamline admissions into institutions of higher learning
  • Enhance scholarship opportunities.
  • CED supports secondary level independent learners to fulfill graduation requirements leading to an accredit transcripts. The experienced CED staff can provide students assistance with:
  • Course planning
  • Long or short term learning
  • Textbook selection
  • Self designed course development
  • Effective lesson planning
  • Work assessment
  • Collecting evidence needed to prove completed work
  • Earning high school credits guidelines
  • Step by step assistance on preparing for the yearly portfolio review

A recently released report on lifelong learning by The Economist found that “in many occupations it has become essential to acquire new skills as established ones become obsolete” and that a degree “at a start of working career does not answer the need for the continuous acquisition of new skills, especially as career spans are lengthening”.

The demands on public education are changing in many ways: demographically, economically, politically.  To adapt to these changes, public education must be flexible. In a more ordered and less demanding time, it made sense for American states and localities to seek the efficiencies of a uniform model of education.

Standards can be an operational depending on how they are conceived, standards can be used to foster either a standardized approach to education, (a sorting focused system) or a customized approach (a learning focused system). The following are the some principles that reflect a role for standards in a learning focused (customized, learner centered, result- oriented) approach to education.

E- EDUCATION:

Online learning offers students easier access to education, as well as more personalized, flexible and customized learning experience, which explains its increasing popularity among a cross section of students including working professionals interested in lifelong learning. Technology is transforming education and its impact just continues to grow. By creating and embracing a solid framework for online learning and employing cutting edge learning management systems, higher education institutions are in a position to significantly improve student outcomes today and into the future.

 

SKILLS BASED TRAINING:

Trained workers can be less tremendous drain on time and resources. It helps in:

  • Increases employee productivity
  • Reduces turnover
  • Aids in the recruiting process
  • Rewards long time employees
  • Reduces the need for employee supervision

LIFE LEARNING EXPERIENCES:

No matter how many degrees we have or what kind of education we received, there are some things that only life can teach us- lessons that we only learn in the school of life.

  • The meaning of purpose
  • How to be independent
  • We can’t control time
  • How to move on from failure
  • How to be patient
  • We all need love
  • Life is difficult
  • We will scatter our hearts in the wrong places
  • We have a choice
  • We all need help
  • Everything is temporary
  • Nothing is impossible
  • Never get attached to plans
  • We have to face our fears
  • We have to love who we are

RE-DESIGNING BOOKS:

Ministry of education decided to change the curriculum of school books. For example, math out of all other subjects because it seemed like a challenge to make one of the most difficult subjects seemingly easy and comprehendible for students.

  • Illustrations
  • Geometry
  • Evaluation
  • Pointing out the problem in the layout
  • Modern and suitable way
  • Storytelling kind

CULTURAL AND EDUCATION EVENT ROLE:

To summarize, a child is born without culture, and education can be viewed as the process of transmitting culture. Cultural knowledge and skills concern all aspects of human life. Long ago, the list began to include such items as  hunting, fighting, caring, healing, worshiping, farming, building, governing, judging, accounting, pleasing, competing, and educating.

That is, our early predecessors were aware of the educational process, which itself was a part of their culture, and certain members were specialized in dealing with educational matters.

CONCLUSION:

Standards should be understood as one tool for helping the entire education system to learn and improve, not as the kingpin of change or as the occasion to decide for our time what the content of education should be and what level of achievement will be acceptable.

2. Kumkum Mandhanya

Symbiosis Law School, Hyderabad

Skill based training classes

Abstract:

“Knowledge is of no use until it is put into practice” – Anton Chekhov

Gone are the days when students carry bags full of books and copies and now all these are considered as a secondary source and the time has come when smart room classes and more of practical knowledge are being emphasized upon. It retains the knowledge for a longer period also a kind of clarity in working comes through practice which further gives efficiency and accuracy to work and no such need occurs to burn the midnight oil for examinations.

Key words: pragmatic approach, efficiency and accuracy, motivation, impact

Introduction:

Customizing education just not only means providing the learners with the methods of easy learning technique, but a pragmatic approach aiding with the means plays a very important role in this kind of system. In India this is the reason why philosophers insist on the development of skill is so necessary from the very young age and how it should make pace with the student’s age.

With the changing world scenario with regards to the market of jobs and industry employment there has emerged an overlapping need for skilled workers. And according to the changing era the definition of “skill” and “skilled” is completely changed.  As, the study shows that about 90% of the employment opportunities require vocational skills and only, 20% of our graduates get employed and the sole reason why the rest are not being employable is they lack suitable employment skills.

According to the recent City and Guilds Group’s Skills Confidence report, about 95 per cent of India’s Labor force lack employable skills. Interactive approach gives a deeper impact in the minds.

Primary stage development:

The skill development process generally starts its primary phase in the school itself. As there are many courses in the field of Hospitality, Handicraft, Photography, Textiles, Healthcare, Tourism, IT, Banking, Insurance etc. can be added as a part of their curriculum so that it will give students a clear vision of each and every field and also they will be able to pursue the field of their interest and capability.

The pedagogy has to be practical; learning can be enhanced through field visits, e-learning, industry driven projects, digital or video inputs and so on For instance, if a student has an inclination toward doing “hospitality” then the basic thing which can be taught at school level is maintained cordial relations, spirit of teamwork and other such activities which can be inculcated at the very primary stage.

At which age should Skilling ideally begin for students?

India is relatively young as a nation with around 28 million as its youth population being added per annum. More than 50 per cent of its population is below the age of 25 and more than 65 per cent are aged below 35. So it can be assumed that till 2020, the average age of an Indian will be expectedly 29 years, while it will be 37 for China and 48 for Japan. For India to make skill capital of the world, it becomes the need of the hour to adopt a dynamic approach in the school curriculum. According to the recent City and Guilds Group’s Skills Confidence report, about 95 per cent of India’s Labor force lack employable skills.

Students should be acquainted with “skill development” program at the age of 12-13 years itself. It will remain a dream if carried out in centers alone in isolation. It needs to be imparted in school itself along with the academic curriculum.

Indian Scenario:

As we know the population of India is proliferating day by day, so we have found the appealing need to train the young workforce, just to shape them in a better way so that they may take the future responsibility in the progress of the country. In the present era there are ample of opportunities that one can choose form and excel in. However the thought process of Indians is more clued and orthodox with respect to girls and boys. Also, with respect to academic careers and streams in relation to engineering, medicine, accounts, MBA etc.

There are many instances wherein the student is pushed into a particular field by parental peer and pressure and it is more of accepting what is told as they themselves do not have a clear vision of their field of interest and when they realize in future it becomes very difficult to start it all over again from the scratch. Introduction to skill training at a young age will by all means give the student an opportunity to explore various options and accordingly, narrow down on a vocation of his/her liking.

Some of the skills which sets pathways and are mandatory for an individual to be acquainted with as some skills are not career related, but are considered to be as common ethics are communicating skills, attitude, adaptability, teamwork, self management, initiative etc.

Contemporary phase of education system in Indian scenario:

The maximum emphasis of Indian education system is based on bookish knowledge. So, the real world is faced by them only when they face the real world mainly after school studies. And this is where the real struggle begins. What has been analyzed that the curriculum which is being provided in school at secondary and higher secondary level is mainly inclined to subjects like language, math, social studies, science, etc. it is observed that the curriculum does not cover components of employable skills, nor is there any option to introduce students to different vocations.

Recommendations and suggestions:

The two major reasons which can be deciphered from the prevailing problem are facility and faculty. Rather than just distributing handouts will never serve the purpose, it needs to flip around. So that’s that the faculty will provide the overall learning of the students and not just mugging up things. Components of Skilling in its curriculum should be introduced. Encouraging and motivating also plays a very important role.

Conclusion:

While the education system and the skill development, domain have its own set of Limitations and challenges, there is a need for a radical transformation the way we skill, our youth as self reading, information gathering, practical knowledge and work experience will give a human personality a harmonious development of a child.

3. KONIKA GOYAL

MANIPAL UNIVERSITY  JAIPUR

CUSTOMIZED EDUCATION

There is a difference between personalization and cutomization .Personalization is when the system you are using tailors itself to you and your behavior. A good example of this is Amazon “noticing” what you are buying and changing their front page to feature similar items.

Customization is when the user explicitly changes things – font size, colors, layout, etc.

I think the likely trend to come will be the customization of education as well as a change in the role of teachers to guides and coaches. With advances in technology, the traditional classroom has many drawbacks. Though working in groups has many positives. I think the “classrooms” of the future will work to combine the benefits of both customization and group learning. The flipped classroom is one approach to doing this. Now a days, customized education is playing an important role to the society as changes are being done in the education system .AS e-education tools are discovered for the better education of students as we can take an example of educomp (e-education tool). This tool helps the students as well as teachers. The students will learn things through video classes as well as audio classes. As sometimes practically looking at a thing makes a huge difference whereas this helps the student to develop their imagination, thinking and learning skills as well.

  • Students can accomplish mastery learning – total and thorough knowledge of a particular subject, topic, or concept.
  • Students gain from one-on-one mentorship – regular sessions with the same tutor. These students perform an average of 98% better than their peers who do not access one-on-one mentorship for their academics.
  • Online tutoring is affordable. In comparison to other past and contemporary personalized learning options, online tutoring tends to be affordable for most families. And in comparison to in-person tutors, online tutoring tends to be significantly more affordable.
  • Online tutoring flexible. Students schedule sessions when they want from where they want.
  • Online tutoring is accessible. Now, unlike ever before, students can access top tier educators from their mobile devices – like iOS or Android smartphones or tablets – or from computers. In this model of personalized learning, geography is no longer a limit.

This help in life learning experiences, as customized study is based on practical things while it gives a whole time experience to learn. Example writing a speech and arguing on that speech makes a huge difference. This kind of studies build confidence in the students and make them extrovert rather being an introvert. As in life if a person is not able to share his own ideas because of his fear, then what is the use of the studies, so he needs to be extrovert?We can take one more example of an interview, he needs to be confident to answer the question.

Thus customised studies re-designed the books in such a way that students feel happy while reading the books as after every chapter there is an activity given in every book i.e. “Test your skills” which keeps the interest of the children.

E- Learning is easy to access and understand. Everyone can have master classes on this…Recently, I learned that 5 year old kid were searching for a minecraft how-to video on Youtube using Google voice search.  It blew my mind.  This is a generation who have learned to use the internet to find stuff out before learning to read and write. In the past, a collection of hardware, software and online tutoring services have managed to bring transformation in classrooms and learning methods. But the real disruption of education is yet to arrive in the form of Artificial intelligence. Here are the 10 ways by which AI can transform education.

INTELLIGENT TUTORING SYSTEMS

Smart tutoring systems are already used in many classrooms. Though they are not widely used at present, these systems are capable of functioning without a teacher. Moreover, these smart systems can effectively challenge and support the students using various algorithms.

SMART GRADING SOFTWARE

AI systems can instantly grade student’s test papers. Moreover, the error rate will be much lower when compared to humans. Every grade is then added to a central database to which future test papers are compared

PERSONALIZED LEARNING

So far, education systems mainly focus on what students learn, with a strong emphasis on curriculum. But in reality, how a student learns is just as important as what they learn. AI advancements are enabling teachers better understand their students learning patterns. With this understanding, teachers can customize the curriculum accordingly.

INTELLIGENT MODERATION

Advanced AI techniques like Machine learning help teachers and moderators to analyse the large sets of data generated from large student groups. This helps them to enhance their efficiency in the classroom.

IMPROVES COURSE QUALITY

AI can easily evaluate answers and analyse specific answering patterns in which a large number of students submit wrong answers to the same questions. With this analysis and insights, teachers can modify their curriculum.

VIRTUAL REALITY LEARNING

Today, Virtual Reality is the talk of the town. VR-assisted learning creates realistic environments for learning and extends the boundaries of the classroom. These virtual environments provide learners with a richer understanding of the subject.

PROVIDES VALUABLE FEEDBACKS

AI can create effective groups particularly suited to a certain task, or groups that balance one student’s weaknesses with another’s strengths. AI can not only help craft courses that are customized to specific students, it can also provide valuable feedback about the success of the course. How can your business automate with Artificial Intelligence?

PREDICTIVE ANALYSIS

With predictive computing, AI systems can learn student’s learning habits and suggest the most efficient coaching schedule for them.

MACHINE TRANSLATION

Translation apps are widely used by many people but many of these apps are not as accurate as human translation. However, machine translation from AI systems can be much faster and more efficient when compared to those apps. Machine translation can bridge the language gap for many second language students.

GAMIFICATION

AI systems can simulate gaming environments in the learning process thereby motivating students. Gamification helps improve retention capacity of students while also making the learning experience a lot more entertaining.

FINAL THOUGHTS

With AI systems and software, students can learn from anywhere in the world at any time. Curriculums based on AI are already helping students to learn better. In future, these AI programs will likely offer students with a much wider range of educational services.

 

CASE STUDIES ON CUSTOMIZED EDUCATON

  • Trues dell Education Campus in the District of Columbia Public Schools, is quickly becoming one of the most innovative elementary schools in the region, with the student academic gains and outcomes to prove it.  Central to this innovation is an instructional model that personalizes learning for all students, in a partnership with Summit Public Schools, a leading charter network with ten schools across California

 

 

And Washington State. The partnership, called Summit Basecamp, supports partner schools around the country to explore or expand personalized learning.

For the past several years, Truesdell, which serves students in grades preK-8, has experienced substantial increases in the number of English Language Learners and children from low-income households.  Too often in urban education, such population shifts result in declines in academic results and progress.

Instead, Truesdell’s partnership with Summit is seeing a dramatic increase in student learning, increased attendance and decreased disciplinary issues. At Truesdell, a data-driven, personalized learning culture has erased much of the status quo of the traditional education establishment, transformed the role of teachers and driven widespread improvement in its initial year of implementation.

Truesdell is one of two DC Public Schools, and one of dozens around the country, currently partnering with Summit Basecamp to personalize teaching and learning.  This approach represents a compelling model for school transformation, as the Truesdell experience, discussed in this paper, describes.

 

 

 

 

  • This fall, Northern Virginia’s Loudoun County Public Schools will introduce a new personalized learning approach in 15 elementary and secondary schools, adding a powerful strategy to the district’s overall vision of preparing students for an increasingly competitive, but collaborative world. Moving deliberatively – and quickly – to bring personalized learning to the large district may prove to be a key strategy in moving Loudoun to deeper, more relevant learning.

 

  • The Enlarged City School District of Middletown, New York is showing the nation how to transform a once-struggling district. Proving that good things come in small packages, this economically challenged district is improving on important metrics — for example, 4-year high school graduation rates have increased from 51 to 80 percent over the past nine years. Now aiming to drive achievement and student engagement even higher, Middletown is implementing personalized learning through a comprehensive, phased approach to blended learning to help students meet the demands of New York’s Common Core standards and aligned assessments.

To date in Middletown:

  • 91 percent of teachers in the blended learning program report they are more effective.
  • Three-fourths of students in Middletown’s blended learning program outperform their peers in non-blended classrooms in math.
  • Students improved reading achievement by 136 percent overall on the NWEA MAP assessment.
  • 89 percent of teachers report an increase in student engagement.

4. Niranjan E V

Criest university Banglore

Multilingual Education in India: The concept, growth and Issues

Multilingualism is a subset of multiculturalism. The latter is a political and societal ideology that enshrines the existence, promotion and practice of various traditions, customs and cultures in a single society, and the former deals only with languages. The Indian multicultural framework portrays the social stratification and social limitations in the Indian subcontinent, in which social classes are characterized and categorized by a huge number of genetic groups, named jatis or castes. Religiously, Hindus frame the greater part of the multicultural ambit, followed by Muslims. The populations are as follows, Hindu (80.5%), Muslim (13.4%), Christian (2.3%) and Sikh (2.1%). Further, Buddhist, Jain, Jew and Parsi populations contribute a meager part of the Indian subcontinent. India’s states have eventually been separated and reorganized on linguistic basis. Moving on to its subset, multilingualism, the Indian subcontinent is diverse in linguistic context, with about 3000 mother tongues. Therefore, states vary from each other in culture, architecture, food, attire, artistic style, design, music and festivities. A country’s financial system depends mostly on its human capital, which in India is from the numerous abilities, special societies and legacy of different kinds of individuals. Thus, multiculturalism is often placed as a reason for development to be conceded.

 

Focusing on my core topic, multilingual education is important to Indian students as they tend to be from various ethnic and cultural groups. It also creates an impact on the teachers in different parts of the country. Multicultural education and training should include agreeable and cooperative learning. The teacher and students work together and look for the collaboration in the group. The teacher studies and learns the culture and languages from the societies, the students belong to and the students learn those of the teachers. The educators sometimes don’t have the idea and necessity to understand and learn the lingual and cultural matters of their students. This results in a one-way communication between the students and the teacher, which is an ineffective way of learning. Further, multilingual education bridges the gaps between different languages. It creates a two way bridge eventually achieving sustainability between languages, rather than a one way bridge, which merely moves one language. By two way bridge, I mean the competence which takes place in local, regional, national and international languages. Multilingual education makes all languages equal. Since, it creates a sense of identity, there is no language that is inferior to another. Thus, it enables to promote equity and equality among languages.

 

In the recent days, teaching languages should be multilingual not just as far as the number of languages offered to kids, but additionally as far as developing procedures that would utilize the multilingual classroom as an asset or a resource. Kids will get multilingual training from the beginning. In the non-Hindi talking states, students learn Hindi. But in Hindi speaking states, kids do not learn the other languages. Sanskrit can be studied in addition to these languages.

 

Having a look into the bridging of languages, time management comes into picture. The initial step is to connect Mother Tongue and the School language. 80% of the educational time ought to be spent on reading and writing the Mother Tongue and 20% for the language spoken at school. From that point more and more time ought to be given to perusing what’s more, written work of the school language. This time is to be adjusted to the point that before the finish of the primary stage (Fifth Standard), the time ought to be overhauled, 80% for the school language, 20% for the Mother Tongue. This time is not fixed and can be balanced as per the need of the students.

 

The constitutional provisions recognize minority languages in the country. All the states have linguistic minorities, but not all these languages are being taught in schools as a medium of instruction. The survey by NCERT has proven that are not even textbooks available for these languages. We should have a keen look on this, as minorities are a very important part of our society. Doing this will eventually, lead to inequality in languages.  In states where Dravidian languages are spoken, people feel, imposition of the mother tongue of a particular region in India, as the official language of a whole country, as tyranny. The former Tamil Nadu Chief Minister C N Annadurai once made the following statements opposing Hindi imposition in the south: “It is claimed that Hindi should be common language because it is spoken by the majority. Why should we then claim the tiger as our national animal instead of the rat which is so much more numerous? Or the peacock as our national bird when the crow is ubiquitous?”

 

Moving to one of the major establishments in the field of multilingual education, the Three language formula is to be looked into. The All India Council for Education recommended the adoption of this Formula in September 1956. According to this formula, a child must learn the mother tongue or the regional language; the official language of the union or the associate official language of the Union so long as it exists (official language of the union is Hindi and its associate official language is English); Modern Indian language like Sanskrit or a foreign language which is not the language of medium of instruction.

 

5. Raj Vardhan Singh.

Chanakya National Law University, Patna, Bihar

The way of educating young minds.

History of development of mankind is millennium years old. One of the major sources of their development is the knowledge, which the homosapiens have acquired through experience, observation of natural and social phenomenon and through experimentation. Accumulation, preservation, newlinetransmission, and generation of this knowledge through institutional arrangement like, universities, colleges and schools have formed important link in the continuum of development of the mankind. The development of knowledge through interaction among the social groups gave rise to the knowledge of social order, social institutions, social newlineand individual existence, individual action and social response, family institution and community authorities and the state which were further culminated into regional and global organizations. The interaction between newlineindividual social group with nature and physical products gave rise to the knowledge of natural and physical sciences and use of science for the well-being of its members. It also gave rise to economic institution, newlineeconomic order, economic possessions and its corresponding ability to influence social order and physical products. This interaction further gave rise to complex phenomenon of play of economic, social and physical newlineforces and the knowledge of inter-relationship among these forces. Whereas, newlinethese forces operate in the field of life the institutional arrangements of universities and schools continued to provide the information and knowledge of historical past, ability to understand and analyze it, ability to reflect on contemporary phenomenon and ability to cause changes through newlineexperimentation, research and through opinion building among people. The way in which the young minds are educated determines the future of the nation and thus it becomes a thing of utmost importance to cultivate the young minds through the modern tools of E-Education, skill based training classes, life learning experiences, and by Redesigning books which have become obsolete.

Helping people learn in ways that are easier, faster, surer, or less expensive can be traced back to the emergence of very early tools, such as paintings on cave walls. Various types of abacus have been used. Writing slates and blackboards have been used for at least a millennium. From their introduction, books and pamphlets have held a prominent role in education. Now is the high time when we should learn from the past and should try to implement E-Education tools in our education system.Using computers or other forms of technology can give students practice on core content and skills while the teacher can work with others, conduct assessments, or perform other tasks.Self-assessment in education technology helps students in analyzing their strengths, weaknesses and areas where improvement is possible to set realistic goals in learning, improve their educational performances and track their progress.Through the use of educational technology, education is able to be individualized for each student allowing for better differentiation and allowing students to work for mastery at their own pace.

Changing economy and changing technology calls for talent who can face the challenges of the modern world. Skill based training classes is a tool through which the skills of an individual could be nurtured. When skill based training is imparted to the students, it not only motivates them to work harder but also acts as a refresher and keeps their mind sharp. Skill based training classes guarantees continuous supply of skilled workforce to meet the ever changing environment. Skill based training classes typically begins with identifying desired skills, assessing the student for that specific skill, determining the gaps and accordingly the training program is structured. It is a great tool of education in this modern era as it gives more emphasis on the practical area of education.

Another mechanism through which the young minds need to be addressed is education based on life learning experiences.Life has boundless experiences. Every moment human or child gains experience, from experiences we learn and modify our behavior. Therefore, education is termed as reconstruction of experiences. In the field of curriculum, various experiences are to be taken into account for a suitable educational system. Through experiences child learns the lessons of life and becomes active in his day-to day programs. Experience-centered curriculum is framed according to the psychological bases of education.The child gets direct experience when the information presented is live. It creates a social environment. It develops social qualities like cooperation, sympathy, love, belongingness and others. The teaching-learning situation is controlled. The education is providing according to the needs and necessities of the child. The child comes in direct contact in life situations. Experiences are generated out of curiosity. It develops group loyalties. It helps to solve the social problem of life. Therefore, modern educationists and curriculum planners needs to give importance to experience-centeredness in education and curricular programs.

Effective reform must start with the understanding that the curriculum is the central focus and the central business of schools. Effective curricula are the sina que non of the system that is capable of delivering a quality education to all kids. Thus, it’s  vital that the books are redesigned before they become obsolete.Books are a wonderful gift to mankind and is a treasure house of knowledge. They are the gold mines of art, literature, science and information. The importance of books in our education system is immense and therefore the curriculum designers needs to have a check that whether the information that the book contains is of relevance in the current time or not.

Supporting education to meet the needs of today’s world is a global goal. A 21st century education is both broad in a relevant way, as well as deep in judiciously chosen area, where the three dimensions of skill, character and metacognition are taught through the lens of traditional and modern knowledge, with interdisciplinary lenses. To wax philosophical about the ultimate goal of education, like many from Socrates to Confucius, view wisdom as the ultimate goal of education. To quote E.O Wilson: “ We are drowning in information, while starving for wisdom.”

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